Melasma is characterized as symmetrical, blotchy, brown or blue-grey discolouration. The presence of melasma can range from mild to severe, depending on the individual.
Melasma pigmentation is due to the overproduction of melanin. Most commonly found on the upper lip, forehead and cheeks, melasma typically appears as brown pigment with either shadow-like or distinct borders. Due to its common connection to hormones,
melasma is more frequently seen in women than in men, especially those who take oral contraceptives and pregnant women
(often referred to as “pregnancy mask”).
Additional known triggers for melasma include sun exposure and sun damage, hormone replacement therapy, hormonal IUDs,
certain medications, hypothyroidism and scented toiletries and cosmetics.